Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide.

Clinical Summary of Walboomers JM et al 1999.

Abstract: A recent report that 93 percent of invasive cervical cancers worldwide contain human papillomavirus (HPV) may be an underestimate, due to sample inadequacy or integration events affecting the HPV L1 gene, which is the target of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test which was used. The formerly HPV-negative cases from this study have therefore been reanalyzed for HPV serum antibodies and HPV DNA.

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